Disc herniation

According to Kapur et al. (2012), degenerative disc disease may be the underlying pathology in up to 45% of low back pain cases. The term disc herniation or herniation of the intervertebral disc means a focal extension of nucleus pulposus, annular or end plate material beyond the normal margin of the disc (Milette 2000). Others define herniated discs as fragments of the nucleus pulposus breaking through the annulus fibrosus in the outer spinal canal (Sahrakar 2011). These fragments can irritate/compress nerve roots (Sahrakar 2011) and/or lead to inflammations (Foster 2012). Disc herniation does not always manifest itself as nerve root compression, it can also be asymptomatic (Kester et al. 2002).

Patient History